In Principe, the leaves are on the move. Almost every road on this island has been carved out of the jungle, and the jungle seems eager to reclaim the lost ground. Trees and brush and vines press relentlessly against the dirt edges of the roads, their leaves pushing towards the road like dogs straining at a leash.
They quiver as a tropical breeze plays over them: the flat plates of banana trees and the fringed fronds of the jacaranda, latticed leaves and leaves that resemble propellers, shield-shaped leaves and heart-shaped leaves. There are leaves that grow from branches and leaves that sprout epiphytically from trunks; there are leafy vines that slither along the ground or drape like a veil from high branches or clamber their way eagerly up a tree trunk. There are leaves that can be pressed against your skin to leave a silvery tattoo, and leaves that will help treat malaria.
This is no ordinary jungle. The island of Principe – half of the West African nation of Sao Tome and Principe – is a UNESCO-listed biosphere reserve, a place where vividly coloured kingfishers and raucous African parrots flit through the trees while turtles nest on the pristine beaches. Its natural landscapes are the major selling point for a country trying to kickstart a tourism industry. Its major drawback? That would be the fact that few people have ever heard of Sao Tome and Principe, let alone know where it is.
Paradoxically, however, that drawback may be precisely what draws a particular breed of traveller. Well-heeled voyagers who have been there, done that, will be intrigued at the idea of exploring a place that no one can locate on a map. These two compact islands floating off the coast of West Africa – 300 kilometres from Gabon, 200 kilometres from each other – constitute one of the world's smallest countries, with a population of about 200,000, only 7000 of whom live on Principe. The islands were uninhabited until the 1500s, when the Portuguese began using them as a watering spot for their trans-Atlantic slave ships. They later farmed cacao, coffee and sugar here; today's inhabitants are the descendants of the plantation workers.
The country gained independence in 1975, when a newly democratic Portugal divested itself of its colonies. (Portugal's national carrier, TAP, is the only European airline to offer direct flights to Sao Tome.) For decades, nothing much happened in the tiny nation – until Mark Shuttleworth came along and decided that a sustainable tourism industry was the country's best hope for escaping poverty.
THE FIRST RESORT
For most countries, luring tourists is a slow process that usually starts with a group of trailblazers. In the up-and-coming destination of Nicaragua, for instance, the first on the scene were the surfers who came for the towering waves found along the country's Pacific coast. In time, they also discovered, and spread word of, the country's other attractions, including soaring volcanoes and picturesque colonial towns. As visitor interest grew, so did investment in infrastructure such as hotels. Nicaragua is now steadily increasing its visitor count, although it still has a long way to before catching up with better-known Central American countries such as Costa Rica.
For Sao Tome and Principe, that process has been a lot more precipitate, thanks to South African billionaire Mark Shuttleworth. The software developer, who also became the first African in space when he bought passage on a Soyuz rocket, has dedicated himself to helping the country develop in a sustainable manner. After consulting experts in design, forestry and agriculture, he bought one of Sao Tome's few existing hotels and has recently opened three others on Principe.
Shuttleworth has also created his own supply chain, which starts with gardens and orchards to grow the produce used in the hotels' restaurants and spas, and stretches all the way to recycling facilities to deal with the waste, including a craft studio that makes jewellery from trash. Shuttleworth's investment has been estimated at between $US95 million and $US135 million. One local tells me that eight of out 10 jobs on Principe are thanks to Shuttleworth.
Each of Shuttleworth's hotels is different. The Sao Tome property, Omali Lodge, provides an overnight stop for guests before their onward flight. On Principe, Bom Bom Resort, flanked on either side by beaches, is the entry-level option, with rooms that are comfortable rather than luxurious. There is a more sumptuous feel at the restored manor house called Roca Sundy, the heart of the Sundy plantation. Sundy was once home to almost 600 workers and the layout, with village houses still opening onto the square in front of the main house, offers a window into the past.
The real draw, however, is the luxurious Praia Sundy, a group of elegant tented villas nestled into the forest overlooking the beach. During my stay, the only other guests are some well-to-do expatriates stationed in Africa enjoying a short break and a Portuguese couple escaping the winter.
Praia Sundy's staff are excellent guides to the island. Daily activities include walks to waterfalls and hikes to nearby beaches, or you can join a boat trip and go beach hopping. The beaches are simply spectacular, their edges shaded by magnificent Indian almond trees and their sands washed by green waters so clear that when you swim out, you can see sea urchins on the ocean floor. The most remarkable thing about them, however, is that you are unlikely to ever encounter another person. We spend relaxing mornings picnicking on deserted shores, watching hawks skim low over the water and flying fish porpoising through the waves.
One morning we head out to the island's sleepy bayside capital, Santo Antonio. A history of Principe in my room informs that around 1900, Santo Antonio consisted of seven streets lined with wooden shacks. It has grown since then, but not by much. The shopping options are limited to one poky outlet selling Chinese tat and a tiny market where a handful of people are selling goods, mainly second-hand clothes. There is also a lot of washing spread out on the road; apparently the hot tarmac speeds up the drying process. The locals carefully drive around it.
LUNCH WITH A LOCAL
That is not to say that Santo Antonio doesn't have its charms. Its gaily painted houses, done in licorice allsorts shades of pink and blue and green, may be decaying in the tropical climate, but they are doing so picturesquely. Only one building is exempt from the unkemptness: a chic dove grey bungalow with glossy white shutters. My guide tells me it belongs to the country's president and is kept ready for visiting dignitaries. I ask him whether it gets a lot of use. He thinks for a moment.
"The president of Gabon came to visit," he finally remembers. And thinks a bit more. "And the president of Cape Verde."
One thing Santo Antonio does have is restaurants. Four, to be precise. Without any signage, they are indistinguishable from the neighbouring houses. Rosina's restaurant, where we have lunch, is on the covered verandah of Rosina's house, where she has set out a couple of plastic tables with assorted chairs. There is a view over Rosina's neat garden across to the neighbouring house, where a car is rusting in the yard.
Just as Rosina doesn't do signs, Rosina also doesn't do menus. After we sit down, she sends out a succession of dishes. First to appear is a stew filled with potatoes and several kinds of meat. When we ask what it's called, our grandmotherly host shrugs. "Doesn't have a name," she says. It's something she's just whipped up.
That is followed by octopus – a local delicacy – and a sensational fish fried with ginger. Less appetising is obobo, a rather flavourless mash made with cassava and manioc flour that is another local favourite. The piece de resistance, however, is a bowl heaped high with perfectly fluffy grains of white rice.
This is more than just a bowl of rice. It is a declaration of intent, a statement of ambition, a proclamation that this is one classy joint. Rice, you see, is a big deal in Principe. While the island is rich in tropical fruits, it is low on grains and cereals. Rice, originally brought in as part of foreign aid shipments, has become something of a fetish for the younger Principe residents, as one disapproving local tells me.
"At first, they handed out rice for free, but then they began to charge for it," he tells me. "I think it was a plot to get us addicted." He has no patience with locals who complain about the cost of rice. "We have so many other things to eat; all you have to do is go out into the forest."
THE FORAGING CHEF
Much of the forest's bounty can be sampled at Praia Sundy, where Angelo Rosso, the resort's launch chef, has put together an exquisite menu featuring everything from crab consomme with lemongrass and coconut to fish tartare with papaya and ginger. Although Rosso's CV includes a stint at Heston Blumenthal's world-famous Fat Duck restaurant in Bray, he says that working on Principe has transformed him as a chef. "There is not much here, so you need to be really creative to come up with something unique."
Rosso admits he didn't initially grasp just how big the challenge would be. "I knew I would have to rely on local ingredients, but when I went to the market, there were just five stalls, and all they had was tomato, carrots, cabbage." He tried to set up an organic vegetable garden, only to find that in the tropical climate, fungus infestations ran rampant.
Ingredients weren't the only challenge; other resources are also in short supply. "I can't do anything that requires slow cooking," he says. "Our gas comes from Gabon, and it's very expensive."
In the end, the forest came to the rescue. The islanders are practiced foragers, and Rosso has followed suit. Indicating a bowl of greens, he says, "I picked those in the morning on the way here". Not long after he arrived, he spent several days wandering through the forest with a local, asking which plants were edible, and how they used them. "Some of the herbs were completely foreign to me, so I asked a lot of questions," he says, before adding with a laugh, "If I really wasn't sure, I made them eat it first."
With shipments often not arriving as scheduled, Rosso has learnt to make everything he can inhouse. That includes not just simple things like preserves and bread – he bakes three different types every day – but also kitchen essentials such as fish sauce and soy sauce. The ingredients for his soy sauce include red beans, roast barley and yeast. "It took me a long, long time, but I finally got a blend that I was happy with."
Rosso also had to form his own kitchen brigade, training up locals with no experience. He learnt to keep things simple, replacing the lectures on cross-contamination with practical steps. "We have colour-coded our chopping boards: we use the red boards for fish, the blue boards for meat, the white boards for chicken," he says.
THE KING OF CACAO
One of Rosso's most memorable meals is his weekly cacao degustation, which includes a sophisticated cacao gnocchi and an addictive cacao and olive tapenade. Rosso uses only Principe cacao, which he tells me is among the purest in the world. He suggests that I should meet the producer, Claudio Corallo. That same day, I get a text from a chef friend who has seen my Instagram posts from Principe. "Have you met Claudio Corallo yet?" she asks eagerly.
Corallo's cacao and chocolate, it turns out, have an international following, and while his Sao Tome factory offers regular tours, the man himself lives on Principe. One phone call confirms that Signor Corallo is up for a chat, so I head to the far end of the island for one of my most memorable encounters.
On an island where picturesque decay is an art form, Corallo's old plantation house is a masterpiece. The exterior walls looks like Jackson Pollock dropped by armed with a palette of moulds, but the sparsely furnished interiors are spotless, and the building is immediately appealing. Corallo loves his house the way it is and has no time for government officials who have suggested turning it into a tourist attraction.
"They want me to restore the building," he says, a look of disbelief on his face. "Can you imagine?"
Corallo, one suspects, has a fondness for the lost, the forgotten and the neglected. Having previously owned coffee plantations in Zaire, he came to Principe on a quest for buried treasure, in search of the cacao world's equivalent of the missing link.
Cacao is part of Principe's colonial history, initially planted by in 1819. The trees flourished and by 1900, Sao Tome and Principe had become the world's largest producer of cacao.
By the time Corallo arrived on the island in the 1990s, however, cacao production had declined drastically. That was precisely what drew him here. "Everywhere in the world today, cacao is grown from new hybrids engineered to be productive," he explains. "Only in Principe, which was small enough to be forgotten, can you still find the stock of original cacao plants."
Finding them was difficult; Principe's restless forest had already reclaimed many of the plantations. Corallo searched through the jungle to locate the surviving cacao plants, and then cleared the surrounding area to give the trees room to grow. He carefully tends the plants to produce the finest quality cacao – cacao that lacks the bitterness normally associated with the bean.
"Sixty per cent of the quality of the chocolate is already set before you start roasting the bean," he says, explaining that everything from the pruning of the trees and the harvesting, right through to the fermentation process, affects the flavour. Corallo says his chocolate tastes good because his beans are good.
"Being a planter is a career," he says proudly. "Just because I buy a plantation does not make a planter, just as buying a Formula One car doesn't make me Schumacher."
Ute Junker was a guest of the Classic Safari Company.
TAP Airlines offers direct flights from Sao Tome to Lisbon. See flytap.com
The Classic Safari Company offers a seven-night package including three nights at Praia Sundy, three nights at Roca Sundy and one night on Sao Tome. From $2750 a person twin share, including half board and all transfers including flights between the islands. See classicsafaricompany.com.au or call 1300 130 218
UNDER THE RADAR
You may hard pressed to find them on a map, but each of these lesser-known countries has its own charms.
Covering 500 square kilometres, the tiny European country of Andorra, tucked amid the Pyrenees peaks between France and Spain, has neither an airport nor a train station. It is home to some of Europe's best ski resorts, including Grandvalira, which has more than 210 kilometres of trails.
Perched between French Guiana and Guyana, the jungle-covered Suriname is South America's smallest country. Its charming colonial capital, Paramaribo, bears traces of the many influences that shaped Suriname, including African, British, Dutch, Indian and Chinese cultures.
This Central Asian republic may lack the glittering Silk Road cities that adorn some of its neighbours, but intrepid travellers will fall in love with its soaring Alpine landscapes and traditional nomadic culture.
Few countries offer as much untouched nature as Kiribati: its 33 islands are scattered over 3.5 million square kilometres of ocean, with a total population of just 100,000 inhabitants. Truly a place to get away from it all.
Discover a very different side to Africa in Lesotho, a kingdom entirely encircled by South Africa. The whole country lies above 1000 metres and popular activities include not just for hiking and horse treks, featuring the local Basotho ponies, but also skiing. Yes, really.
Africa's island getaways offer everything from blissful beaches to dramatic mountains.
Napoleon Bonaparte met his end there in 1821, which is the last time anyone paid much attention to St Helena. Two hundred years later, this island 2000 kilometres off the southwestern Africa is finally accessible by regular flights (from Johannesburg) and hoping to lure travellers with its hiking trails and its most famous resident, a 186-year-old giant tortoise called Jonathan.
You can choose your own adventure in the island archipelago of Cape Verde, which lies 500 kilometres west of Senegal. Hike through valleys of sugar cane on Santo Antao, discover untamed beaches on Sal, or get down to the beat on Sao Vicente, the birthplace of morna, Cape Verde's very own musical style.
With its soaring peaks and verdant valleys, the island of Reunion combines dramatic landscapes with a French flair. Lying 800 kilometres east of Madagascar, the volcanic island is known for adventure sports as well as its Creole culture.
Its beaches are as glorious as those of the Maldives, but somehow the Comoros archipelago, tucked in between Madagascar and Mozambique, has flown under the radar. Each island has its own charm, from the labyrinthine medina of Morono on Grande Comore to the beaches of Moheli, where turtles come to nest.
It is best-known for its unique wildlife, especially its endearing lemurs, but Madagascar's landscapes are equally memorable. Among the most dramatic is the Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park, where deep canyons are filled with jagged pinnacles.
Don't leave Principe without ticking these off your to-do list.
GAZE OUT TO SEA
The island's mountainous south offers plenty of spectacular viewpoints. Start your exploration at the fishing village of Praia Abade then work your way along the coast, drinking in the views.
Join conservationists in monitoring the activities of the sea turtles that lay their eggs on the island's beaches between September and April.
SWIM IN A JUNGLE POOL
If the hike through the forest to O Que Pipi waterfalls gets you a trifle hot and bothered, relax; a swim in a tranquil waterhole awaits you at the end of the trail.
CLIMB A MOUNTAIN
Principe's tallest mountain, Pico Papagaio, stretches 700 metres into the sky. On the walk to the top, expect to see monkeys and a range of native plants including wild orchids.
GO THE FULL COLONIAL
Ruins don't come much more picturesque than Roca Infante D Henrique, an old plantation house slowly being reclaimed by the jungle. Chance to explore.